Ankum civic arms
In the 18th century the Dutch provinces were relatively rich. The political situation was stable and this period was a golden age for Holland.
The situation in Germany was totally different. It was not one country but consisted of 50 little kingdoms from which Prussia and Bavaria were the most powerful. Every once and a while there was a king, prince or duke who thought he had to expand his territory and began a war. This affected trade and caused great poverty among the population.
Many came to Holland seeking work as mowers during the harvesting season. After the season they had to go back to Germany because they were not Dutch citizens. This group of people is called in literature "Hollandgänger" (Holland travelers).
There were 2 ways to obtain citizenship. The first was to marry a Dutch citizen (as Johann Gerhard Wilhelm did; residing in Terschelling), the second way was if you had a profession in which there was a shortage in Holland. Most probably the Caspar Heinrich Naber and Anna Catharina Lienesch never lived in Holland.